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> Egyptian Tomb Architecture Issue: 2009-3 Section: Other







Architecture is unbreakably connected with populations all over the world and in all times.

Each country, however, depending on climatic conditions, cultural habits, technology that it has developed, its manners and customs, develops different forms of architecture.

Also, all forms of architecture are connected with the period covered by each population, as well as with the regime that prevails in each country.

Egyptian culture is one of the oldest cultures with rich and important history for all the humans and according to the first written reports it is dated from 5000 B.C. Ancient Egypt was divided in the Upper and Lower Egypt, that constituted separate kingdoms which were governed by a Pharaoh.

From excavations, papyruses and signs that have been rescued we have a lot of information on the social and political role of the Pharaoh.

The population deified him and believed that he represented god Ra () on earth.

Pharaohs are also the reason why Egyptian subordinates built various buildings to their glory, the more important among them being the pyramids, dedicated to dead Pharaohs.


I. Pyramids

Nowadays when we refer to Egypt, the bulky and imposing pyramids come to our mind automatically, the first of which is estimated to have been built during the Ancient Kingdom (3200-2300 B.C.).

These imposing tombs were built with the perspective of protecting Pharaohs’ mummies and sarcophaguses in eternity.

It seems that pyramids are the work of a population characterized by an exceptional know-how and a complicated social organisation according to the data of the time.

The tombs of the first monarchs were not manufactured under the form of pyramids. In the beginning, the kings had built big buildings that were mainly underground.

Sometimes, the graves were built from plinths, while their interior had wooden case and stone flooring.

An example of such a pyramid is king Den’s grave in Abydos that has granite flooring and it is one among the first buildings in which stone had been used.

These enormous buildings that accommodate the graves of dead Pharaohs also house characteristic objects from the life of these monarchs.

In these graves genuine works of art were found, like golden boxes, embossed boxes from ivory, elaborate seats and couches, ebony and clay figurines, as well as plates with files (papyruses) that testify the heroic action of king Pharaoh in wartime.

On the emaciated by the time hands of queens golden bracelets are found and are considered as the most representative samples of their era.

All these prove that the sovereigns of the first dynasty were not uncivilized barbarians but sensitive people with their own opinions on life.

Lastly, the body of the dead should have been protected from every exterior damaging effect, because only then the soul, roaming freely, could find the body it belonged to.

Substantially, that is to say, each pyramid constitutes a well fortified fortress, which protects the hidden mummy of Pharaoh from all kinds of hostile scheming.

For this reason, each Pharaoh took care in building the pyramid, where his body would rest, a long time before his death, even ten or twenty years earlier.

Thus, Pharaoh himself could look after the proper safety system operation of the pyramid.


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