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> History Of The Global Warming Issue: 2009-2 Section: Science


The Global Warming is a natural phenomenon, conanected with the increase of the average annual temperatures measured on the whole terrestrial globe.

Since the '50s in the 20th century the average temperature on the Earth has increased by about 0,7 0C.


Reasons for Global Warming

When the coals, the oil and the Earth gas (natural formed hydrocarbons) are burnt out, CO2. is released.

In the Earth atmosphere there is always a definite quantity of СО2, but as the steam engine and, later, engines with inner burning system began to be used, from the 18th century on, the quantity of СО2 has been increasing continuously.

The hothouse effect is expressed as follows: the sunbeams reach the Earth surface but instead of dispersing into the space they turn back from the atmosphere.

The nitrogen oxide and the freons, too, greatly contribute to global warming.

The freons are used in the aerosol products and the refrigeratory techniques.

These gases are called steam gases.

The freons interact with the ozone in the atmosphere and make the ozone layer thinner. The ozone layer is at its thinnest in the Antarctic and it is also much thinner in most Northern areas.


Increase of the sea level

The warming of the atmosphere leads to an increase of the level of the World oceans, due to two reasons.

First, when the temperature increases, the water wides and increases its capacity. Second, the increasing of the temperature leads to the melting of the ice cap above the Antarctic.

The increasing of the level of the World ocean can lead to having only water in the coastal lowlands and other continental places with low altitude. This leads to serious problems for the populations that live in these regions and disturb the ecological equilibrium in the adjoining ecosystems.

The observations of the scientists over many years show that every year the sea level increases by 1-2 mm.


Changing of the climate

The warming of the atmosphere is going to change the Earth’s climate vastly.

By 2020 - 2030 the temperature of the air is expected to increase by about 2 0С. The consequences are not known: some regions of the Earth can begin to be hotter and drier (considerable enlarging of the deserts) and some regions can get damper. An increase of bad weather conditions on the Earth hurricanes, a torrential rain etc, is predictable. The changes of the climate will affect the areas, rich in plants and animals. They can also provoke natural cataclysms and disturbance of the biological equilibrium. The scientists prognosticate that if the average temperature on the Earth increases by 6 0С, the biggest part of the land (mostly Africa, Australia and the plateau in Central Asia) will turn into deserts. Antarctica will be settled by animals and coniferous plants.


Adaptation to the changes and the restrictions connected with the Global Warming

The serious effect to the changing of the climate can be averted with timely and material decreasing of the emission of the steam gases – passing to a low – carbon economy of worldwide importance. In this is expressed the policy of the EU for limiting the increase of the average temperature by 2 0С in comparison with the temperature before the Industrialization. The adaptation actions are undertaken with the aim of coping with the changes of the climate - increase of the temperatures, difference in the quantity of the rains and coping with other natural disasters. Examples for coping with the climate: the more rational use of water supplies, building of protecting walls against floods, increase of the height of the dams as protection against higher sea level, territorial plans for helping the migration. At the Spring counsel in 2007 the countries from the EU agreed to decrease the emission of the steam gases by 20% by 2020 and by 50% by 2050 (instead of the levels in 1990).


Reasons for global concern

In many regions in the world the increase of the average temperatures is 0,76 0С. This is 3 – 6 times more than the increasing registered before the industrialization.

In the last three decades, climate change has already influenced:

Water: Many people use the water from the melting of the ice. When the glaciers disappear about 1 milliard people will migrate, which will lead to local and world problems. The places with settling dry land will decrease.

Ecosystems and biological variety: For about 20 – 30% of the species the extinction will increase, if the average temperature increases by 1,5 – 2,5%.

Food: The changes of the climate will lead to the increase of the risk of hunger and a greater number of the endangered population.

Coasts: The increasing of the sea level will endanger the low coastal regions (the Nile delta, the Ganges delta and the Mekong delta), which will lead to the migration of up to 1 million people. The small coastal countries are already touched.

Health: There will be increasing of the infectious illnesses. In 2002 only the diarrhoea, the malaria and the protein undernourishment caused over 3,3 million death cases.


The temperature In Europe is increasing by nearly 1 0С (faster than the average values of the world). The warmer atmosphere contains more water steams, but the new models of condensation are different in the regions. The rains have increased considerably in Northern Europe, while in Southern Europe there is often dry climate.

Temperature extremes ( the record heat wave in 2003) have become more frequent. More than half the plant species in Europe can be vulnerable or endangered by 2080.


Most vulnerable regions in Europe:

Southern and South-East Europe - a combined effect of high temperatures and decreased level of rains.

Mountain regions- mostly the Alps, where the temperatures are increasing and this leads to massive melting of the snow and the ice and change of the water steams.

Coastal zones, because of the increasing of the sea level and the raising risk of storms.

River basins and floodplains – increased risk of storms, big rains and sudden floods.

Scandinavia – there are expected many rains , instead of snow.

Arctic region – the temperature changes will be most essential like in no other region on the Earth.


Adaptation in Europe

The adaptation can decrease the expenses on condition that a policy for removing the hindrances under the action of the participants from the private sector are established.

The greater the increase in temperature the greater the expenses in terms of money, environment and people.

Nine economical myths for the climate

The fight against the Global Warming is not at all costs economic unremunerative.


1. We can wait

The increase of the temperatures by 2 0С will cause many harms to the climate and to people.


What defines the increase of the temperatures is the quantity of harmful gases in the atmosphere. In order to have a chance to prevent such disasters we must begin a fast decrease of the emissions of СО2 until 2010. If we wait until 2020 there is 50% possibility that the temperatures will increase by 3 0C - a level, in which there are many risks.

2. Firstly we have to put in order the economy

The problems in the economy are due to the increasing dependence from the import of oil. In that way, if there is a decrease in the use of oil products, the economy of each country will be better.

3. It is too expensive

To hold up to the restriction of 2 0C increasing of the temperatures, the world has to spend 800 milliard every year until 2020. This is with great difficulty 5 – 6% increasing.

4. The Gross Inner Product will decrease

All studies point that the gross inner product will grant resources for the fight with the climate changes.

5. Higher prices for the consumers

The effect from stating a maximum of the harmful emissions will lead to the increase of the expenses of all the household by less than 1%. But the passing into a new model of power supply will decrease the cost of the power resources.

6. Weaker trade and stronger competition

There will be no failure of the industries and moving of the productions to other countries.

7. There will be a completely new technology

We already have the technology necessary to achieve 75% of the decrease into the wanted border from 450 parts in million and the speed of development of the innovations will depend on the stimuli and the market of the low – paid technologies.

8. The developing countries can wait

The account for decreasing of the emissions won’t happen without considerable participation from the developing countries.

9. The saving of the woods doesn’t have economic effect

If we want the quantity of СО2 to hold back to the border to 450 parts on million, we must stop the destroying of 170 millions hectare woods and to plant new 330 million.



· Adaptations to the climate changes, 2007;

·, Competitive Enterprise Institute , Washington;

· http://environment.nationalgeographic

.com/environment/global-warming/gw-overview.html, National Geographic;


· Gary Braasch, www.worldviewofglobal, Portland, USA;

· Anup Shah,;


· Andrew C. Revkin, http://topics.nytimes.


ing/index.html, The New York Time, New York;


· S. Fred Singer, Dennis T. Avery, Global Warming, Unstoppable;

· Spencer R. Weart, The Discovery Of Global Warming.