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> Evolution of Trains Issue: 2009-3 Section: Science



Before the invention of the railroad land transfers were for millennia in much the same primitive way: to pull either passenger or freight wagons used the muscular strength of animals.

But in the early 19th century an unexpected solution was presented. The use of motive power of steam resulted in the construction of the railroad, which was the first motorized means of land transport, which not only gave optimal solutions for the season, but also opened a new chapter in global technological developments.

The appearance of the station can be installed in the early 18th century with the use of a steam engine locomotive. The first traction engine was designed by Englishman Trevithik. The engine has developed an average speed of 8 kph.

In Greece the first rail system opened in 1869, the route Athens-Piraeus and was in "Company of ap'Athinon station in Piraeus. Piraeus station located at the current terminal of the power station.


Locomotives. Used steam engines, different types of diesel engines, and electromechanical.





They convert heat energy into kinetic. Each engine must be filled with water after certain hours. The steam engine built by Thomas Shavers in 1698 for pumping water is the first machine built for practical applications.

The next important milestone was the camera Nioukomen Thomas, in 1712, which was improved by James Watt.

Since then the engines continued to improve and evolve constantly, playing a key role in the realization of the Industrial Revolution, and of the Industrial Revolution, and thus in the transition from manual mode of operation and production to mechanized.

Also it played an important role in the development of navigation and shipping, with the advent of steamers, which did not depend on wind for propulsion, such as sailing, and the introduction of railways as the main method of land transport in developed countries.


Diesel Engines

And they also convert thermal energy into kinetic. They are divided into two types: those that directly convert heat energy into kinetic and those that convert heat into electricity, which in turn is converted into kinetic energy. These machines are divided into two- stroke and three-stroke, with regard to the production of work during the stroke.



They convert electrical energy into kinetic. The electric motors should be supplied with electricity. So over the railways there is electrical network of constant electricity 3.000 V dc or single-phase AC electric motor 25.000 V.I has a making system of electricity and a transformer for the degradation of the high voltage mains voltage to the motors.



Modern trains

There are trains, of high specifications such us the type of Intercity (express or regular) and trains (fast, high speed, etc.). The Intercity train is the classification applicable to certain long-distance passenger train in Europe. Such trains (in contrast to regional, local or commuter trains) entering port at major stations only. The Intercity-Express is a high-speed train system used mainly in Germany but also in neighboring countries like Switzerland, Austria, Holland and Belgium.

The ICE in Germany is supposed to be the flagship of the German trains, and is their most valuable product. German trains, and is their most valuable product.

Densely populated urban areas usually serve three different operating systems of the railways.


The overhead tram power lines, is a word originating from the Scottish dictionary and describes a small train ,developed in the late 19th century.


Metro working with terrestrial electricity is a mass transit railway system in the cities. The first subway was opened in the London Underground (1863) and is better known as The Tube. It consists of 11 lines. Besides its age, the London Underground is the most extensive and longest in the world. The first metro in continental Europe was in Budapest.


The fastest trains in the world

The Japanese Maglev (Magnetically Levitated Train) magnetic elevation train has the speed record of 581 km / h on a test line west of Tokyo on 2/12/2003.

The next is the French TGV-POS (it rests on the rails) is an electromachine and grabbed the 574,8 km/h on 3/4/2007.

The fastest diesel train is the Spanish Talgo XXI in 256.38Km/h and did that in 2002… and the end leaving the Gas Turbine Train TGV 001 - 318Km/h.

A gas turbine train is a passenger train that utilizes more than one gas turbines as its main source of power. Nowadays,, these gas turbine trains are used in United Kingdom, in France, in United States, in Canada.